Nutritional and Technological Optimization of Wheat-Chickpea- Milk Powder Composite Flour and Its Impact on Rheological and Sensorial Properties of Leavened Flat Bread

Published Date
August 10, 2021
Type
Journal Article
Nutritional and Technological Optimization of Wheat-Chickpea- Milk Powder Composite Flour and Its Impact on Rheological and Sensorial Properties of Leavened Flat Bread
Authors:
Aouatif Benali
Youness En-nahli, Younes Noutfia, Adil El-Baouchi, Mohammed Rachid Kabbour, Fatima Gaboun, El Haj El Maadoudi, Nadia Benbrahim, Mona Taghouti, Mohammed Ouhssine, Shiv Kumar Agrawal

Flour quality is influenced by the nature of the gluten and its various components. Gluten
free flour made of pulses is known to enhance the nutritional quality of wheat flour. However, its
addition can compromise the rheological and sensorial attributes of the bread. We used mixture
design to optimize nutritional and technological qualities of a wheat–chickpea flour blend by adding
milk powder as a natural organoleptic improver. A total of thirteen flour blends were prepared
by incorporating 10 to 30% chickpea flour and 10 to 20% milk powder to wheat flour. Our results
showed that the optimal flour blend consisted of 60% wheat, 24% chickpea, and 16% milk powder.
Farinographic parameters of the optimal dough blend remained on par with those of the control
dough (100% wheat flour), thereby preserving its bread-making quality. Sensory analysis of breads
made from the optimal flour blend revealed no significant difference (p  0.05) from wheat flour
for crumb and chewiness. Appreciation was brought to the appearance, crust, aroma, and taste
in the optimized bread. This study suggests that chickpea flour can be suitably incorporated into
bread wheat flour up to a percentage of 24% with 16% milk powder to produce bread with optimal
nutritional quality while improving its sensory attributes and consumer acceptability.

Citation:
Aouatif Benali, Youness En-nahli, Younes Noutfia, Adil El-Baouchi, Mohammed Rachid Kabbour, Fatima Gaboun, El Haj El Maadoudi, Nadia Benbrahim, Mona Taghouti, Mohammed Ouhssine, Shiv Kumar Agrawal. (10/8/2021). Nutritional and Technological Optimization of Wheat-Chickpea- Milk Powder Composite Flour and Its Impact on Rheological and Sensorial Properties of Leavened Flat Bread. Foods, 10 (8).
Keywords:
chickpea
mixture design
flat bread
organoleptic enhancement
nutritional fortification
milk powder