Detection and Characterization of Chickpea Chlorotic Stunt Virus in Syria
Field surveys were conducted in Syria during the 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 growing seasons to identify viruses which affect cool-season food legumes, volunteer crops, and weeds with yellowing, reddening and/or stunting symptoms. Serological tests (tissue blot immunoassay) showed that Faba bean necrotic yellows virus and luteoviruses including, Beet western yellows virus, Bean leafroll virus and Soybean dwarf virus were the main viruses identified. In addition, a large number of samples reacted positively with the broad spectrum legume luteovirus (5G4) monoclonal antibody but not with any other specific luteovirus monoclonal antibodies suggesting the occurrence of new luteovirus species/strains. RT-PCR assay of 27 of such samples revealed the presence of Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV; genus Polerovirus, family: Luteoviridae). The coat protein nucleotide sequence analysis of the Syrian CpCSV isolate from chickpea showed a high homology (98%) to that of the Ethiopian CpCSV isolate. However, there were some differences in host range and aphid transmission characteristics between the Syrian and Ethiopian isolates. This is the first report of CpCSV naturally affecting eight legume species (Cicer arietinum L., Lens culinaris Medik., Pisum sativum L., Vicia faba L., Vicia sativa L., Vicia ervilia L. Willd., Vicia narbonensis L. and Medicago sp.) and four wild non-legume plant species [Apium sp. (Apiaceae), Euphorbia sp. (Euphorbiaceae), Physalis longifolia Nutt. (Solanaceae) and Sinapis arvensis L. (Brassicaceae)] in Syria.